Selection, Operation & Troubleshooting of Transformers

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Venue Starting Date Duration Fees Join Now
Dubai - UAE , 20240715 15 - Jul - 2024 5 - Day $4,950 Register
Online - Virtual , 20241008 08 - Oct - 2024 2 Hrs X 8 Sessions $2,100 Register
Dubai - UAE , 20241111 11 - Nov - 2024 5 - Day $4,950 Register


This course aims are to provide understanding of the basic fundamentals and constructional features of Power Transformers with particular reference to the design, testing, operation and maintenance of transformers in power systems. Transformer is a very complex and valuable device with many mechanical and chemical processes taking place all the time. The course also highlights the necessary safe procedures relating to Transformer Isolations, energizing and related circuitry. Special emphasis is also placed on the Testing and maintenance of transformers.

This course is a must for utility and industrial electrical Engineers, who have the responsibility of keeping their electrical system “on-line.” This course combines theoretical and practical aspects of transformer design, operation, maintenance, testing and troubleshooting. This course gives the participant the information necessary in helping him prevent premature failure and costly unplanned outages. The participant will learn the oil and electrical test requirements and how to interpret the test data as well as setting up a proper preventative maintenance program.


The important features of the Selection, Operation & Troubleshooting of Transformers training course are:

  • Developing a maintenance procedure of power transformers
  • Understanding the selection criteria of transformers
  • Management of all hazards associated with power transformers
  • Management related issues such as risk and safety


  • Explain the basic operation of a transformer as a main component in any electrical network.
  • Determine different shapes and designs of transformers.
  • Discuss turns ratios and calculate terminal voltage and current.
  • Discuss terminal markings and various single phase and three phase wiring schemes. (WYE vs DELTA).
  • Discuss the electrical testing performed on transformers such as insulation resistance testing, excitation and power factor testing.
  • Discuss the various tests performed on insulating oil.
  • Understand Safe and proper maintenance and troubleshooting procedures on power transformer.
  • Learn practical new solutions for specifying, operating and maintaining power transformers in a utility or plant environment
  • Avoid costly errors from specifying the wrong transformer for your application and from failing to recognize the importance of specifying the right core design
  • Examine the possibilities of maximizing efficiency and economic performance of your transformer fleet
  • Determine precise transformer specifications for every application
  • Become familiar with what makes a power transformer tick
  • Gain knowledge of both the underlying principles and practical applications of power transformers in today’s competitive world


This course is recommended for skilled trades, supervisors, and anyone involved in the maintenance of industrial power circuit breakers, especially: Engineers and technicians from electricity supply industry – Engineering professionals from companies manufacturing, importing and distributing Power and Distribution Transformers – Engineers and technical personnel in power utilities, co-generation operators, petrochemical plants, service managers of buildings and hospitals. Participants need no specific requirements other than the basic understanding of electricity and magnetism and circuit theory and general knowledge of nature and operation of Power Transformers.


The latest educational methods and strategies are employed. The course is designed to not only give the required fundamental knowledge but also to provide a strong background for all attendees towards practical industrial applications. The course will be highly interactive, with opportunities to advance your opinions and ideas. Participation is encouraged in a supportive environment. To ensure the concepts introduced during the course are understood, they will be reinforced through a mix of learning methods, including lecture style presentation, open discussion, case studies, simulations and group work.

Pre & Post course assessments will be used to measure the effectiveness of this training.


Module 1 -Basics and theory of transformers

  • KeyTopics:

    • Introduction
    • Magnetic field
    • Magnetic and electric fields
    • Electromagnetism
    • Electromagnetic induction
    • Generating electrical current
    • Three phase system
    • Worldwide AC voltages and frequencies
    • Per-unit values

    Transformer Theory

    • Purpose and Scope
    • Types of transformers
    • Transformer applications
    • Magnetic and electric circuits of a transformer
    • Winding, current and voltage ratios
    • Laws of transformer
    • Principle of operation of a transformer
    • Transformer equivalent circuit and transformer losses
    • Efficiency and why is transformer efficiency usually high?
    • Regulation and transformer’s voltage per turns
    • Significance of volts per hertz

    Transformer Construction

    • Introduction
    • Core material
    • Core configurations
    • Transformer core types
    • Transformer windings
    • Bushings
    • Tank and Transformer tank fittings

Module 2 - Transformer cooling and Performance

  • KeyTopics:

    • Introduction
    • Cooling arrangement
      • ONAN type cooling
      • ONAF type cooling
      • OFAF type cooling
      • OFWF type cooling
    • Gas insulated transformer
    • Comparisons
    • Temperature gauges and Oil level gauge
    • Thermal time constant of power transformer
    • Power transformer sealing systems
    • Effect of oil expansion
    • Silica gel breather and moisture

    Transformer Performance

    • Nameplate data
    • Transformer parameters
    • Three phase transformer
    • Auto-transformer
    • Transformer tap changer
    • Parallel operation
    • Maximum efficiency
    • Dry type transformer
    • Transformer noise
    • Permissible loading of oil-immersed transformers
    • Special transformers

Module 3 -Transformer Power Factor and Harmonics

  • KeyTopics:

    • Introduction
    • Causes of low power factors
    • Known loads power factors
    • Annual power factor penalty
    • Unfavourable effects of low power factor loads
    • Capacitor price simple payback
    • Power factor improvement
    • Power factor improvement for power transformer
    • Transformer reactance
    • Capacitor sizes required to compensate the no-load reactive power of transformers
    • Voltage rise
    • Harmonics and Waveform
    • Useful parameters
    • Sources of harmonics
    • Problems created by harmonics
    • Third harmonics generate large neutral currents
    • Third harmonic filter and Installation of THF in different networks
    • Active filter (power quality filter)
    • K-rated transformer

Module 4 -Transformers Protection

  • KeyTopics:

    • Transformer faults
    • Differential relays
    • Biased differential relays
    • Restricted earth fault protection
    • Over current protection
    • Overload protection
    • Gas operated (Buchholz) relay
    • Sudden pressure relay
    • The internal fault detector
    • Explosion vents
    • Temperature indicator
    • Tank earth protection

Module 5 - Transformer Testing and Diagnostics

  • KeyTopics:
    Oil Testing

    • Definitions
    • Functions of transformer oil
    • Transformer oil properties
    • Transformer oil standards
    • Hydrocarbon compounds in transformer oil
    • Moisture problems
    • Factors affecting transformer oil properties
    • Cellulose degradation
    • Oil dielectric strength test
    • Relative water content test
    • Physical & chemical tests (polar characteristics of oil)
    • Dielectric losses angle & resistivity test (power factor test)
    • Transformer dissolved gas-in-oil analysis (DGA)
    • Oil color test
    • Insulating oil sampling procedure
    • Oil purification and dehydration
    • Yearly insulating oil testing
    • Oil aging

    Transformer Testing

    • Test data
    • Abnormal operating conditions of power transformer
    • Reasons for transformer testing
    • Transformer performance assurance
    • Classification of transformer tests
    • Winding resistance test
    • Polarity test
    • Ratiometer test
    • No-load losses test
    • Load losses test
    • Percentage impedance voltage measurement
    • Leakage reactance measurement
    • Efficiency test
    • Winding insulation resistance test
    • Winding insulation capacitance & dissipation factor (tan δ) test
    • Sudden short circuit withstand test
    • Oil pressure test
    • Temperature rise test
    • Impulse testing
    • Transformer arrival: Handling, Inspection and Pre-Commissioning

    Transformer Diagnostics and Monitoring

    • Safety
    • Visual inspection
    • Transformer diagnostics
    • Transformer monitoring
    • Transformer maintenance management

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